#40DayChallenge Day 30 Outline and explain two criticisms of Interactionist approaches to understanding society (10) One criticism of the Interactionist approach … Although this care is often very helpful, the definition of eating disorders as a medical problem nonetheless provides a good source of income for the professionals who treat it and obscures its cultural roots in society’s standard of beauty for women (Whitehead & Kurz, 2008). x��\Y��6~o���}�m�(�� sd6�@v�Iy��A��Bd�+���ߪ�(ɖ؃͐�=�%���:�:��7MWn�MǾ���M��'��>�?�����Gy�c�+EWև��O�;|�{Y?�Y�r�8�}�,�~�F����wv��y�p{s��3�� b���;`��Q���� New York, NY: New York University Press. Musto, D. F. The sociology of health, illness, and health care: A critical approach (6th ed.). Nursing Standard, 25(38), 28–28. The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and in the quality of health care. Weitz, R. (2013). According to conflict theory, physicians have often sought to define various social problems as medical problems. Finally, health care refers to the provision of medical services to prevent, diagnose, and treat health problems. ����$(L\�$����$���d����J&k,�1�0�#�W�;'* Good health and effective medical care are essential for the smooth functioning of society. endobj To do so, they need the cooperation of the patient, who must answer the physician’s questions accurately and follow the physician’s instructions. The three major ways that the we are criticized through symbolic interactionism are our values, our language, and our actions. Symbolic interactionism tends to Micro-interactions take place between one or a few individuals, while macro-interactions take place at a larger scale. <> Health refers to the extent of a person’s physical, mental, and social well-being. Gender and the social construction of illness (2nd ed.). Once these problems become “medicalized,” their possible social roots and thus potential solutions are neglected. In most of human history, midwives or their equivalent were the people who helped pregnant women deliver their babies. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Patients must perform the “sick role” in order to be perceived as legitimately ill and to be exempt from their normal obligations. People from disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to become ill and to receive inadequate health care. Alternative medicine is becoming increasingly popular, but so has criticism of it by the medical establishment. He must indicate no personal interest in the woman’s body and must instead treat the exam no differently from any other type of exam. Saints, sinners and standards of femininity: Discursive constructions of anorexia nervosa and obesity in women’s magazines. <> øn other words, symbolic interactionism doesn’t put forward a society picture or theory. The way of boys: Promoting the social and emotional development of young boys. To further “desex” the situation and reduce any potential uneasiness, a female nurse is often present during the exam. This social institution in the United States is vast, to put it mildly, and involves more than 11 million people (physicians, nurses, dentists, therapists, medical records technicians, and many other occupations). This analysis strives to explain how people’s social standing affects their … Which approach—functionalist, conflict, or symbolic interactionist—do you most favor regarding how you understand health and health care? 1.2 Sociological Perspectives on Social Problems, 1.3 Continuity and Change in Social Problems, 2.1 The Measurement and Extent of Poverty, 2.2 Who the Poor Are: Social Patterns of Poverty, 3.1 Racial and Ethnic Inequality: A Historical Prelude, 3.5 Dimensions of Racial and Ethnic Inequality, 3.6 Explaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality, 3.7 Reducing Racial and Ethnic Inequality, 4.4 Violence against Women: Rape and Sexual Assault, Chapter 5: Sexual Orientation and Inequality, 5.2 Public Attitudes about Sexual Orientation, 5.3 Inequality Based on Sexual Orientation, 5.4 Improving the Lives of the LGBT Community, 6.3 Life Expectancy and the Graying of Society, 6.4 Biological and Psychological Aspects of Aging, 6.6 Reducing Ageism and Helping Older Americans, 7.5 Drug Policy and the War on Illegal Drugs, 7.6 Addressing the Drug Problem and Reducing Drug Use, 10.2 Sociological Perspectives on the Family, 10.3 Changes and Problems in American Families, 11.1 An Overview of Education in the United States, 11.2 Sociological Perspectives on Education, 11.3 Issues and Problems in Elementary and Secondary Education, 11.4 Issues and Problems in Higher Education, 12.2 Sociological Perspectives on Work and the Economy, 13.1 Sociological Perspectives on Health and Health Care, 13.2 Global Aspects of Health and Health Care, 13.3 Problems of Health in the United States, 13.4 Problems of Health Care in the United States, 14.2 Sociological Perspectives on Urbanization, Chapter 15: Population and the Environment, 15.1 Sociological Perspectives on Population and the Environment, 15.4 Addressing Population Problems and Improving the Environment, 16.1 Sociological Perspectives on War and Terrorism, 16.4 Preventing War and Stopping Terrorism. If you imagine that paradigms are like lenses in a pair of eyeglasses, there are several different lens styles worn by sociologists and symbolic interactionism is one of them. Third, Parsons wrote approvingly of the hierarchy implicit in the physician-patient relationship. First and foremost, they have to diagnose the person’s illness, decide how to treat it, and help the person become well. As we will see, the evidence of disparities in health and health care is vast and dramatic. The basic notion of symbolic interactionism is that human action and interaction are understandable only through the exchange of meaningful communication or symbols. N�io���> �{ b��9{�>Q�Oc\�ľ'�x�ϲ�����ͱ@[]���$Ċ�����Arn�Ɇ��������'�T����P4�����ylb�����'�+�$) � ��~!����+ �O��"؈3R�� ��n`=��� �M|�=�}2�&���R?�M�^$���H'U�33.��(��}�`�q�,3ym��nbЭmuB#P�|�D8��Dm �Ɲi�3�k�U�-�\�өz�/P������\m��O��1p}�����O��=���u� (2002). Ill health impairs our ability to perform our roles in society, and if too many people are unhealthy, society’s functioning and stability suffer. Each paradigm has pros and cons. The criticisms toward symbolic interactionism were more intense earlier in its history than of late due to its perceived departure from scientific methodology … In a way, certain behaviors may be predicted. In a final example, many hyperactive children are now diagnosed with ADHD, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Lecture Notes Finally, as we have seen all week, each theory has several weaknesses that you should be aware of. Think of the last time you visited a physician or another health-care professional. Social Problems by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. P�/]�@w%hh�$g1.�W�V�/��9y�EV�=�\LOS�+�j����/��� �Z_�H!�&aRT9PX�#��i�6dۑN��]m1�.��������e����tN�T���U����ʤ`_�{.��97.�������q�;���"�����z�'~&f� ��2�Ax��o�!,�D|�� ja��j�j�(ب�Viɳ��,IM�i�k�@[�,x�4"�+��TnZ�vH�v5�|/��ܲ��Ֆ ���X�0߈�P��^�[�x�n Symbols i. Whitehead, K., & Kurz, T. (2008). Third, sick people are expected to have their illness confirmed by a physician or other health-care professional and to follow the professional’s instructions in order to become well. In another example first discussed in Chapter 7 “Alcohol and Other Drugs”, in the late 1800s opium use was quite common in the United States, as opium derivatives were included in all sorts of over-the-counter products. Critics also say the approach neglects the effects of social inequality for health and illness. Critics fault the symbolic interactionist approach for implying that no illnesses have objective reality. He referred to these expectations as the sick role. The social system. Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a theoretical approach to understanding the relationship between humans and society. Poor medical care is likewise dysfunctional for society, as people who are ill face greater difficulty in becoming healthy and people who are healthy are more likely to become ill. For a person to be considered legitimately sick, said Parsons, several expectations must be met. The physician-patient relationship is hierarchical: The physician provides instructions, and the patient needs to follow them. Functionalism versus the Conflict Theory versus Symbolic Interactionism Functionalism, the conflict theory and symbolic interactionism are three distinct and common sociological perspectives that share differences and similarities due to the methods in which they evaluate society. Under these circumstances, the physician must act in a purely professional manner. Paradigms provide a starting place to help understand what is being witnessed in day-to-day life and in experiments. It also implies that from a realistic point of view, the interpretations that are being made will not make much difference. Since it sometimes describes society as a thing only in the minds of people (Slattery, 2007). (2002). Parsons was certainly right in emphasizing the importance of individuals’ good health for society’s health, but his perspective has been criticized for several reasons. Although much of his discussion implies a person temporarily enters a sick role and leaves it soon after following adequate medical care, people with chronic illnesses can be locked into a sick role for a very long time or even permanently. Management of the situation is perhaps especially important during a gynecological exam, as first discussed in Chapter 12 “Work and the Economy”. In the nineteenth century, physicians claimed they were better trained than midwives and won legislation giving them authority to deliver babies. New York, NY: Harper Paperbacks. Nathalie Babineau-Griffith – grand-maman’s blanket – CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. The conflict approach also critiques efforts by physicians over the decades to control the practice of medicine and to define various social problems as medical ones. This was especially true for premature death, said Parsons, because it prevents individuals from fully carrying out all their social roles and thus represents a “poor return” to society for the various costs of pregnancy, birth, child care, and socialization of the individual who ends up dying early. On the good side, they have believed they are the most qualified professionals to diagnose problems and to treat people who have these problems. Depending on the research at hand, one may be more efficient or cost effective, but that does not make the others wrong. The medicalization of society: On the transformation of human conditions into treatable disorders. In what ways did this person come across as an authority figure possessing medical knowledge? Thousand Oaks, CA: Wadsworth. ��S��� NѨ���]�o�Dcό�䱏n�7�������([V�q��KV'���i�I~���%~_�����^s���F+����d�fG��!�k��rsD�͇y��P��������/� ���0/�յ�ӏڷ�fO�/��r��ɈV�MتI�s�N��Z��͙��/���g�A�/�c���4�-�O{ m|�ް��S�Aב^�~�8����rD���G��Rr�ˌ��+���. - Symbolic interactionism excludes outside Values are something that we own and have acquired through a … (Ed.). %���� symbolic interactionism: (1) a focus on the interaction between the actor and the world, (2) a view of both the actor and the world as dynamic processes and not static structures, and (3) the great importance attributed to the actor’s ability to interpret the social world. Many serious health conditions do exist and put people at risk for their health regardless of what they or their society thinks. Buckser, A. The ADHD example just discussed also illustrates symbolic interactionist theory’s concerns, as a behavior that was not previously considered an illness came to be defined as one after the development of Ritalin. �������w���m�$��� Ja�� stQb�:u�G[|1��ʘ V�����\��id��%t�=Rw�/GupG�᫡�]�j�t5�1�Ey�П;Ҥ~ה ��@ur��Y u���/;k�!��I0 stream Underscores the relationship between the meaning of symbols and a person’s behavior. Medicine refers to the social institution that seeks to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and to promote health in its various dimensions. Partly to increase their incomes, physicians have tried to control the practice of medicine and to define social problems as medical problems. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. It is important to note that no theory is right or wrong. rl=zy*+/[a����g��Ju�v��4��9C}��$�P�b)�z��Aa���So������P��D��1��w46j;�ԤA٩RAW3���n�1�=��j�O��:׮���a��T�$�Jac�6f���� �/��>&S��~j�N�mc�iӻ[Ȥ�·(�s�[email protected]�@�>U��@�RMEԕ���Op����{c�@޾>�0�*��޵ �`�l�[�� !����˄�V���!F�~�Z�*eVg����55(� ������|Y�G��U��E�ǘ4�v�a9�L&ʗG�u��*[email protected]T��e��E “Critics of this theory claim that symbolic interactionism neglects the macro level of social interpretation – the ‘big picture.’ In other words, symbolic interactionists may miss the larger issues of society by focusing too closely on the ‘trees’ rather than the ‘forest’. Explain your answer. With these definitions in mind, we now turn to sociological explanations of health and health care. Society’s inequities along social class, race and ethnicity, and gender lines are reproduced in our health and health care. Keywords Chronic Illness Social Identity Social World Moral Status Illness Experience Obesity is a known health risk, but a “fat pride” or “fat acceptance” movement composed mainly of heavy individuals is arguing that obesity’s health risks are exaggerated and calling attention to society’s discrimination against overweight people. Sometimes they are even told to stay in bed when they want to remain active. Considers the social environment in which learning takes place. If we eat high-fat food, become obese, and have a heart attack, we evoke less sympathy than if we had practiced good nutrition and maintained a proper weight. %PDF-1.7 The symbolic interactionist approach has also provided important studies of the interaction between patients and health-care professionals. (2009). Recognizes that perceptions of reality are variable and changing. The paradigm is centered on small sets of people and the micro-interactions they have in everyday life. Scientific medicine has greatly improved the health of people around the world. First, his idea of the sick role applies more to acute (short-term) illness than to chronic (long-term) illness. In a more current example, an attempt to redefine obesity is now under way in the United States. Home > A Level and IB > Sociology > Interactionism Interactionism 1.5 / 5 based on 2 ratings? A sociological understanding emphasizes the influence of people’s social backgrounds on the quality of their health and health care. Another criticism of symbolic interactionism is its narrow focus. C���A���.��}�p��>����ȅ��a�bl���>��iiޝ����gYb�{����6JE����O[��o`�m����%��!Ͱ_� An example is the development of the diagnosis of ADHD, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Gender Studies, 17, 345–358. New York, NY: Free Press. 3 0 obj .b�D���ڔ�����V�F��8���y�1�|��'.��m��>����i���QV?����Z �i��ď��� Vz���*h��KV>{D{e��GO���M/n�)�rS�{x�2��z�/�?��N�}��7�l;�Z����\�W�;d�W����Q"��L���Gd�i�B�(��)Y�5J]�����_W����W�:�a�#,_Ih�Fܞi��� i�Hh]��,�y��σ"_i'�ը�����������z����ו�[�Ql��F�\�A��B)h�2X-vG�m����~�,3����A�uf�I��ܻ�n�'����DU�66?MM�����մ�p���UJ�i�a�"Z�%�@����W�D�j$nR���x�� �~��˸����}N��%�6FI�癉��[��3����,*w��9�G���v��=�A�&�� ���wC���#��7B6�����|E(�}��G�G�1�#�V/R! That changed by the end of the century, as prejudice against Chinese Americans led to the banning of the opium dens (similar to today’s bars) they frequented, and calls for the banning of opium led to federal legislation early in the twentieth century that banned most opium products except by prescription (Musto, 2002). Strengths and Weaknesses The objective of this paper is to show you the personal strengths and weakness that I identified by asking friends and family their opinion on the topic regarding yours truly, and by examining myself for areas that I am really good at (also known as strengths) and areas I need to improve (otherwise known as weaknesses). Symbolic interactionism and cultural studies : the politics of interpretation Norman K. Denzin (Twentieth-century social theory) Blackwell, 1992 : hard : pbk Talcott Parsons wrote that for a person to be perceived as legitimately ill, several expectations, called the sick role, must be met. Lorber, J., & Moore, L. J. Gives insight into small-scale human interactions. Rao, A., & Seaton, M. (2010). The interactionist approach emphasizes that health and illness are social constructions; physical and mental conditions have little or no objective reality but instead are considered healthy or ill conditions only if they are defined as such by a society and its members. On the negative side, they have also recognized that their financial status will improve if they succeed in characterizing social problems as medical problems and in monopolizing the treatment of these problems. Although such discrimination is certainly unfortunate, critics say the movement is going too far in trying to minimize obesity’s risks (Diamond, 2011). Although symbolic interactionism might be considered as a theoretical lens, based on the questions you have, I would suggest that you consider phenomenology. This concept suggests that Symbolic Interactionism is a construction of people’s social reality . Ƴ�&�t'�Jj�T���@�`U_�i/O�\�����S�Y+�Y��-;z�>������WZST���Gë�0�@!�ܢ~_�r��J����i�(#�R)�ٓ|j�� r-/��)V�B��/�%��h�9y����&��o��d*���Cx-�S��N�e�RC�€+K�����B{OP�Jb�/tm�-'�6���c[ ����� �PU PKU4�yr Parsons, T. (1951). Strengths. Symbolic interactionism is the study of the relationship between self and society that focuses on the symbolic processes of communication between participants. The functionalist approach emphasizes that good health and effective health care are essential for a society’s ability to function, and it views the physician-patient relationship as hierarchical. Before discussing these perspectives, we must first define three key concepts—health, medicine, and health care—that lie at the heart of their explanations and of this chapter’s discussion. Social inequality characterizes the quality of health and the quality of health care. As conceived by Talcott Parsons (1951), the functionalist perspective emphasizes that good health and effective medical care are essential for a society’s ability to function. Physicians may honestly feel that medical alternatives are inadequate, ineffective, or even dangerous, but they also recognize that the use of these alternatives is financially harmful to their own practices. Conrad, P. (2008). They may have honestly felt that midwives were inadequately trained, but they also fully recognized that obstetrical care would be quite lucrative (Ehrenreich & English, 2005). The definition of their behavior as a medical problem was very lucrative for physicians and for the company that developed Ritalin, and it also obscured the possible roots of their behavior in inadequate parenting, stultifying schools, or even gender socialization, as most hyperactive kids are boys (Conrad, 2008; Rao & Seaton, 2010). There are several varieties of symbolic interactionism with different approaches to empirical research and … People from disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to become ill, and once they do become ill, inadequate health care makes it more difficult for them to become well. Human Organization, 68(3), 293–306. Strengths and Limitations of SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM LIMITATIONS The symbolic interationism theory of deviance also has various limitations surounding its concept. Physicians’ motivation for doing so has been both good and bad. The first important aspect of symbolic interactionism to society members is called values. Basic Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism I. symbolic interactionism and presents his understandings which are most valuable guidelines: Whatever SI may be to my readers, for me it was not and is … If all these expectations are met, said Parsons, sick people are treated as sick by their family, their friends, and other people they know, and they become exempt from their normal obligations to all these people. 1 0 obj Although seen as a weakness by many critics of the theory, the economical approach to relationships can help get to the bottom line very quickly. Drugs in America: A documentary history. Symbolic interactionism Health and illness are social constructions : Physical and mental conditions have little or no objective reality but instead are considered healthy or ill conditions only if they are defined as such by a society. Basic Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism a. endobj Symbolic Interactionism is often times related and connected with social structure. Phenomenology focuses … More generally, one common criticism of Interactionism is that it neglects to explain the source of power in society. If someone is driving drunk and smashes into a tree, there is much less sympathy than if the driver had been sober and skidded off the road in icy weather. Many experts say today that patients need to reduce this hierarchy by asking more questions of their physicians and by taking a more active role in maintaining their health. After Ritalin, a drug that reduces hyperactivity, was developed, their behavior came to be considered a medical problem and the ADHD diagnosis was increasingly applied, and tens of thousands of children went to physicians’ offices and were given Ritalin or similar drugs. Parsons thus viewed the physician-patient relationship as hierarchical: the physician gives the orders (or, more accurately, provides advice and instructions), and the patient follows them. 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