They were delayed most of the day by a cavalry screen commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest. They were delayed most of the day by a cavalry screen commanded by Nathan Bedford Forrest. [46], After Chickamauga, Rosecrans and his Army of the Cumberland retreated to fortified Chattanooga. Floyd and Buckner did not like the idea of having their troops besieged in Fort Donelson. No formal records were taken of the Confederates who surrendered and estimates vary. Two hours into the battle, Gen. Pillow realized that Buckner's wing was not attacking alongside his. He urged Bragg to engage Buell there before he reached Louisville, but Bragg declined. On February 16, 1862, General Buckner surrendered Fort Donelson. Shortly after his inauguration, the Rowan County War escalated to vigilantism, when residents of the county organized a posse and killed several of the leaders of the feud. [21] He was appointed inspector general of Kentucky in 1860. Further, some supporters feared that voting for the National Democrat ticket would be a wasted vote and might even throw the election to Bryan. The matter was adjudicated in federal court, and Buckner was cleared of any connection to the raid. It was considerably more formidable than Fort Henry. Smith replied, "I will do it." Rumors began to swirl in both Union and Confederate camps that Smith and Buckner would not surrender, but would fall back to Mexico with soldiers who remained loyal to the Confederacy. [81] In spite of his withdrawal, he still received 9 of the 134 votes cast in the General Assembly. U.S. Grant: Grants response of “immediate and unconditional surrender” was followed by Buckners bitter reply; he would “ accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms you … Januar 1914 in Kentucky, Kentucky) war Offizier des US-Heeres, Generalleutnant des konföderierten Heeres im Sezessionskrieg und Gouverneur des Bundesstaates Kentucky. Early in the morning of February 11, Grant held a council of war in which all of his generals supported his plans for an attack on Fort Donelson, with the exception of Brig. (The army of former quartermaster Ulysses S. Grant had not yet learned to organize reserve ammunition and supplies near the frontline brigades.) (Concerned that a similar action might be taken against his wife's property in Chicago, he had previously deeded it to his brother-in-law. [24], Although the weather had been mostly rainy up to this point in the campaign, a snow storm arrived the night of February 13, with strong winds that brought temperatures down to 10–12 °F (−12 °C) and deposited 3 inches (8 cm) of snow by morning. Foote had miscalculated the assault. General Grant invested Fort Donelson on the 12th of February, 1862, with 15,000 troops, reinforced that evening by six regiments of infantry and Flag-Officer Foote's fleet of four ironclad and two wooden Reinforcements continued to arrive. It is reproduced from| the Daily Nashville Patriot , March 26, 1862, Vol. The brigades of Cruft (Wallace's Division) and Leonard F. Ross (McClernand's Division) were placed in support on the flanks. Gold standard Democrats opposed Bryan and the free silver platform. [58], At Fort Donelson, Tennessee, Buckner had become the first Confederate general of the war to surrender an army; at New Orleans, he became the last. [79] The Democratic party split over the issue of bimetalism. [72], Buckner proposed a number of progressive ideas, most of which were rejected by the legislature. It was the North’s first major victory of the Civil War, opening the way into the very heart of the Confederacy. This provided sufficient troops to extend McClernand's right flank to be anchored on Lick Creek, by moving Col. John McArthur's brigade of Smith's division from the reserve to a position from which they intended to plug the 400 yards (370 m) gap at dawn the next morning. Fort Donelson was fought from February 11 to February 16, 1862, in the Western Theatre of the American Civil War. [57] Smith had instead instructed Buckner to move all the troops to Houston, Texas. [42], Following the Battle of Perryville, Buckner was reassigned to command the District of the Gulf, fortifying the defenses of Mobile, Alabama. [66] Other prominent candidates included Congressman Thomas Laurens Jones, former congressman J. Proctor Knott, and Louisville mayor Charles Donald Jacob. He assumed command of the District of West Louisiana on August 4. Close to a third of all of Albert Sidney Johnston's forces were now prisoners. If Grant had been able to move quickly, he might have taken Fort Donelson on February 8. [18], On February 12, most of the Union troops departed Fort Henry, where they were waiting for the return of Union gunboats and the arrival of additional troops that would increase the Union forces to about 25,000 men. He never again sought public office and died of uremic poisoning on January 8, 1914. Instead, they wanted to leave a small force at Donelson and march the bulk of their forces against Grant’s supply line. Among his successful proposals were the creation of a state board of tax equalization, creation of a parole system for convicts, and codification of school laws. [78], After his term as governor, Buckner returned to Glen Lily. McClernand's right flank, which faced Pillow, had insufficient men to reach overflowing Lick Creek, so it was left unanchored. Cruft's brigade was sent in to replace Oglesby's and McArthur's brigades, but when they realized they had run into Pillow's Confederates and were being flanked, they too began to fall back. There were three miles (5 km) of trenches in a semicircle around the fort and the small town of Dover. [1] He was the third child and second son of Aylett Hartswell and Elizabeth Ann (Morehead) Buckner. The wheelhouse of his flagship, USS St. Louis, was carried away, and she floated helplessly downriver. [42] During the battle, Johnson, the engineering officer who briefly commanded Fort Donelson in late January, was effectively superseded by Brig. . Gott, pp. Instead, the responsibility went to Brig. With the arrival of Grant's army, General Johnston ordered Floyd to take any troops remaining in Clarksville to aid in the defense of Fort Donelson. Ulysses S. Grant, February 16, 1862 February 11-16, 1862 Estimated Casualties: 17,398 total (US 2,331; CS 15,067) After capturing Fort Henry on February 6, 1862, Brig. [8], On the Union side, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Grant's superior as commander of the Department of the Missouri, was also apprehensive. I propose to move immediately upon your works. Brigadier General Simon B. Buckner's Division Colonel John C. Brown's Brigade Porter's Battery This battery of 6 guns occupied the salient sweeping all approaches to the front and flanking the trenches to the right and left. Beito, David T.; Beito, Linda Royster (Spring 2000). [43] By 5:30 p.m. Wallace's troops had succeeded in retaking the ground lost that morning,[44] and by nightfall, the Confederate troops had been driven back to their original positions. Fort Donelson had only about 5,000 men. It was in this attack that Union troops in the West first heard the famous, unnerving rebel yell. Thomas L. Connelly, historian of the Army of Tennessee, believes that Buckner was the author of the anti-Bragg letter sent by the generals to President Jefferson Davis. [14], Floyd's Confederate force of approximately 17,000 men consisted of three divisions (Army of Central Kentucky), garrison troops, and attached cavalry. [23], "Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner", National Governors Association, Hamlin Garland Papers, Doheny Library, University of Southern California. He did not believe it adhered to Johnston’s orders. The Union capture of the Confederate fort near the Tennessee–Kentucky border opened the Cumberland River, an important avenue for the invasion of the South. Smith formed his two remaining brigades to make an attack. SIR: Yours of this date, proposing armistice and appointment of commissioners to settle terms of capitulation, is just received. In November 1846, he was ordered to join his company in the field; he met them en route between Monclova and Parras. The rest of Johnston's forces were 200 miles (320 km) apart, between Nashville and Columbus, with Grant's army between them. 194–202; Connelly. [citation needed], Nearly 1,000 soldiers on both sides had been killed, with about 3,000 wounded still on the field; some froze to death in the snowstorm, many Union soldiers having thrown away their blankets and coats. [17] The river batteries included twelve guns: ten 32-pounder smoothbore cannons, two 9-pounder smoothbore cannons, an 8-inch howitzer, a 6.5-inch rifle (128-pounder), and a 10-inch Columbiad. Nevin, David, and the Editors of Time-Life Books. The capture of Forts Henry and Donelson were the first significant Union victories in the war and opened two great rivers to invasion in the heartland of the South. The ironclads however, came too close to the fort and were hit and forced to withdraw. Grant was not bluffing. On 16 February 1862 General Buckner surrendered Fort Donelson. [17] Buckner was to move his division across Wynn's Ferry Road and act as rear guard for the remainder of the army as it withdrew from Fort Donelson and moved east. He sent orders to General Wallace, who had been left behind at Fort Henry, to bring his men to Fort Donelson. Nearly surrounding the fortifications that guarded a large river battery and encompassed the town of Dover, Grant's men were … [23], With Floyd's arrival to take command of Fort Donelson, Pillow took over leading the Confederate left. This page was last edited on 13 October 2020, at 23:08. Gentlemen, the position on the right must be retaken. The enemy will have to be in a hurry if he gets ahead of me. In this position, he tried to enforce Kentucky's neutrality policy in the early days of the Civil War. [24] That August he was twice offered a commission as a brigadier general in the Union Army—the first from general in chief Winfield Scott, and the second from Secretary of War Simon Cameron following the personal order of President Abraham Lincoln—but he declined. This council in early 1862 was the last one that Grant held for the remainder of the Civil War. [37], The Confederate offensive ended around 12:30 p.m., when Wallace's and Thayer's Union troops formed a defensive line on a ridge astride Wynn's Ferry Road. He was the Gold Democrats' candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1896 election, but polled just over one percent of the vote on a ticket with John M. Palmer. General Simon Bolivar Buckner Simon Bolivar Buckner, (* 1. [84], Glen Lily, the house where Buckner was born and died, Following this defeat, Buckner retired to Glen Lily but remained active in politics. Columbus was evacuated on March 2. Grant was aware Buckner was in Fort Donelson, but he was not likely to know that Buckner was now in command of the fort. More than 7,000 Confederate prisoners of war were eventually transported from Fort Donelson to Camp Douglas in Chicago, Camp Morton in Indianapolis,[54] and other prison camps elsewhere in the North. [13] Buckner was afforded the honor of lowering the American flag over Mexico City for the last time during the occupation. (Captain Joseph Dixon of the river batteries had been killed the previous day during Carondelet's bombardment.) [28], After Union Brig. He participated in the Battle of Chapultepec, the Battle of Belen Gate, and the storming of Mexico City. "[34] This time Wallace sent a brigade, under Col. Charles Cruft, to aid McClernand. At dawn the following morning, Pillow launched a strong assault against the right flank of Grant's army, pushing it back 1 to 2 miles (2 to 3 km). Buckner served on the court martial of Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws after that subordinate of Longstreet's was charged with poor performance at Knoxville. Fort Donelson was a large earthen fort surrounded by a ring of smaller earthworks, which made it a much more difficult place for Grant to capture. [22], The state board that controlled the militia considered it to be pro-secessionist and ordered it to store its arms. [41], Battle of Perryville: Actions in Buckner's sector (~ 3:45 p.m.), Based on intelligence acquired by a spy in Buell's army, Buckner advised Bragg that Buell was still ten miles from Louisville in the town of Mackville. [44] Shortly thereafter, his department was converted into a district of the Department of Tennessee under Gen. Bragg and was designated the Third Corps of the Army of Tennessee. [22][23] The state was torn between Union and Confederacy, with the legislature supporting the former and the governor the latter. His administration was rocked by scandal when state treasurer James "Honest Dick" Tate absconded with $250,000 from the state's treasury. Not until he received the letter under flag of truce seeking terms over Buckner's name. His sister, a recent widow, also returned to the estate in 1877. ", The officers and men are to be "paroled until duly exchanged.". Wallace's old brigade of Zouaves (11th Indiana and 8th Missouri), now commanded by Col. Morgan L. Smith, and others from McClernand's and Wallace's divisions were chosen to lead the attack. "The surrender of property will not include the side arms or private horses or baggage of officers" and enlisted men. Buckner's position finally carried the meeting. 86–87; Gott, pp. Brown; and congressman James B. [12], Buckner was again cited for gallant conduct at the Battle of Molino del Rey, and was appointed a brevet captain. Date: February 12-16, 1862. Smith was now in a good position to move on the fort, having captured the outer lines of its fortifications, and was under orders to launch an attack with the support of other divisions the following day. Buckner, not confident of his army's chances and not on good terms with Pillow, held back his supporting attack for over two hours, which gave Grant's men time to bring up reinforcements and reform their line. [25] After Confederate Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk occupied Columbus, Kentucky, violating the state's neutrality, Buckner accepted a commission as a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army on September 14, 1861, and was followed by many of the men he formerly commanded in the state militia. Floyd left the next morning on the only steamer available, taking his two regiments of Virginia infantry. Kurz & Allison, Art Publishers [1887]. He participated in Braxton Bragg's failed invasion of Kentucky and near the end of the war became chief of staff to Edmund Kirby Smith in the Trans-Mississippi Department. Buckner assembled 61 companies to defend Kentucky's neutrality. Though vastly outnumbered, Wilder refused requests to surrender on September 12 and September 14. [53] This was the first of three Confederate armies that Grant would capture during the war. Buckner also turned over considerable military equipment and provisions, which Grant's troops badly needed. In January 1847, Buckner was ordered to Vera Cruz with William J. The Chicago Tribune wrote that "Chicago reeled mad with joy." [16] Following his resignation, he was assigned to a recruiting post at Fort Columbus. [35], Not everything was going well with the Confederate advance. Buckner's daughter, Lily, was born there on March 7, 1858. USS Louisville was also disabled and the Pittsburg began to take on water. Grant was dismayed at the confusion and a lack of organized leadership. 1, No. Buckner gained such a reputation for fair dealings with the Indians, that the Oglala Lakota tribe called him Young Chief, and their leader, Yellow Bear, refused to treat with anyone but Buckner. Esposito, map 25; Gott, pp. The three divisions were commanded by Floyd (replaced by Colonel Gabriel C. Wharton when Floyd took command of the entire force) and Brig. Buckner's division fought under General Hardee during this battle, achieving a significant breakthrough in the Confederate center, and reports from Hardee, Polk, and Bragg all praised Buckner's efforts. Gen. John B. Floyd, launched a surprise attack, led by his second-in-command, Brig. Not expecting a land assault from the Confederates, he was up before dawn and had headed off to visit Flag Officer Foote on his flagship downriver. Nevin, p. 93; Gott, pp. Feeling overwhelmed, Floyd left most of the actual command to Pillow and Buckner. The official results of the election gave Buckner a plurality of 16,797 over Bradley. Bushrod Johnson and Simon Bolivar Buckner. [18], Before leaving the Army, Buckner helped an old friend from West Point and the Mexican–American War, Captain Ulysses S. Grant, by covering his expenses at a New York hotel until money arrived from Ohio to pay for his passage home. Brigadier General Simon B. Bruckner was the most experienced Southern commander at Fort Donelson, having served a number of years in the Regular Army prior to the Civil War. Grant left orders that none of his generals was to initiate an engagement and no one was designated as second-in-command during his absence. [32], The attack was initially successful because of the inexperience and poor positioning of McClernand's troops and a flanking attack from the Confederate cavalry under Forrest. In overall command was the influential politician and military novice John B. Floyd; Buckner's peers were Gideon J. Pillow and Bushrod Johnson. Two years after Fort Donelson, Grant was preparing to assume the title of Lieutenant General, a rank previously held only by George Washington. Stickles, pp. 165–66; Cooling. To Buckner's dismay, Grant showed no mercy towards men he considered to be rebelling against the federal government. The Union brigades of Cols. Grant had captured more soldiers than all previous American generals combined, and Johnston was thereby deprived of more than twelve thousand soldiers who might have provided a decisive advantage at the impending Battle of Shiloh in less than two months time. [15] Just over a year later, he resigned the post in protest over the academy's compulsory chapel attendance policy. Johnston was apprehensive about the ease with which Union gunboats defeated Fort Henry (not comprehending that the rising waters of the Tennessee River played a crucial role by inundating the fort). [27], As soon as Foote arrived, Grant urged him to attack the fort's river batteries. The damage to the fleet was significant and it retreated downriver. Soon after the victory at Donelson, he was promoted to brigadier general in the volunteers. [13], The Western Gunboat Flotilla under Flag Officer Andrew H. Foote consisted of four ironclad gunboats (flagship USS St. Louis, USS Carondelet, USS Louisville, and USS Pittsburg) and three timberclad (wooden) gunboats (USS Conestoga, USS Tyler, and USS Lexington). Article media libraries that feature this video: American Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant, Union Army, Battle of Fort Donelson, Remembering the American Civil War. The surrender was a personal humiliation for Buckner and a strategic defeat for the Confederacy, which lost more than 12,000 men, 48 artillery pieces, much of their equipment, and control of the Cumberland River, which led to the evacuation of Nashville. At the conclusion of the war, American soldiers served as an army of occupation, which left them time for leisure activities. At the new party's state convention in Louisville, Buckner's name was proposed as a candidate for vice president. Woodworth, pp. ", Animated history of the Battles of Forts Henry and Donelson, Newspaper coverage of the Battle of Fort Donelson, Battles for Forts Henry, Heiman & Donelson, American Civil War: Battle of Fort Donelson, Battle of Fort Donelson: Brief Summary of Location, Strategies, and Casualties, Siege of Fort Donelson, 12–16 February 1862, List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials, List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic, List of Confederate monuments and memorials, Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. He resigned from the army in 1855 to manage his father-in-law's real estate in Chicago, Illinois. Buckner then asked Leonidas Polk to request that Bragg concentrate his forces and attack the Union army at Perryville, but again, Bragg refused. [7], Johnston wanted to give command of Fort Donelson to Beauregard, who had performed ably at Bull Run, but the latter declined because of a throat ailment. In 1903, he supported his son-in-law, Morris Belknap, for governor against Goebel's lieutenant governor, J. C. W. Beckham. The Confederates had pushed the Union defenders back one to two miles (2–3 km) and had opened their escape route. Pillow, normally quite aggressive in battle, was unnerved and announced that since their movement had been detected, the breakout had to be postponed. Gen. Gideon Johnson Pillow, against the right flank of Grant's army. Smith attacked again, he could only hold for thirty minutes, and he estimated that the cost of defending the fort would be as high as a seventy-five percent casualty rate. Despite his misgivings about its defensibility, Johnston agreed to Beauregard's advice that he should reinforce Fort Donelson with another 12,000 men, knowing that a defeat there would mean the inevitable loss of Middle Tennessee and the vital manufacturing and arsenal city of Nashville. Buckner, a fellow U.S. Army officer at that time, loaned Grant money to return home to Illinois after Grant had been forced to resign his commission.) The General Simon Bolivar Buckner, however, argued that they were in a desperate position that was getting worse with the arrival of Union reinforcements. General Grants troops surrounded the Fort. The surrender was a humiliation for Buckner personally, but also a strategic defeat for the Confederacy, which lost more than 12,000 men and much equipment, as well as control of the Cumberland River, which led to the evacuation of Nashville. Shortly after Buckner arrived at Smith's headquarters in Shreveport, Louisiana, Smith began requesting a promotion for him. [52], Grant, who was courteous to Buckner following the surrender, offered to loan him money to see him through his impending imprisonment, but Buckner declined. [9] Like most former Confederate officers, he petitioned the United States Congress for the restoration of his civil rights as stipulated by the 14th Amendment. [56], The site of the battle has been preserved by the National Park Service as Fort Donelson National Battlefield. Noe, p. 70; Stickles, pp. A second messenger arrived at Wallace's camp in tears, crying, "Our right flank is turned! 65, 122; Nevin, p. 79. McCall. The intention was to open an escape route for retreat to Nashville, Tennessee. ". Richard Oglesby and John McArthur were hit hardest; they withdrew in a generally orderly manner to the rear for regrouping and resupply. When his father-in-law died in 1856, Buckner inherited his property and moved to Chicago to manage it. (At the start of the attack on Fort Donelson, Wallace was a brigade commander in reserve at Fort Henry, but was summoned on February 14 and charged with assembling a new division that included reinforcements arriving by steamship, including Charles Cruft's brigade on loan from Buell.) Floyd's background was political, not military, but he was nevertheless the senior brigadier general on the Cumberland River. [2] Named after the "South American soldier and statesman, Simón Bolívar, then at the height of his power",[3] Buckner did not begin school until age nine, when he enrolled at a private school in Munfordville. [55], The casualties at Fort Donelson were heavy, primarily because of the large Confederate surrender. 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