Baur responded that, in general, grade levels are not used as targets because communication is a far more complex process than a grade level can represent. There are also a number of robust health information services. NLM Pub. A formative assessment was conducted in the two shantytowns to inform program design, including the stories and characters that would be used. SOURCE: Parker, 2009. in red is a component of the health care quality discussion—how can the demands and complexities of the system be simplified? NOTE: NCDs = noncommunicable diseases. There is no standard quality check, and it is difficult for consumers to understand and evaluate the accuracy of the information they do have, Kumaresan said. Fortunately, there are a number of discussions on health literacy going on around the world. What other options are there? This tool will also provide better opportunities to determine the independent effects of limited English proficiency and limited health literacy. However, the understanding of literacy that we possess is often curtailed by our educational experiences. CDC Health Literacy. Health literacy is also a priority in the United States. Health literacy goes beyond a narrow concept of health education and individual behavior-oriented communications to address social, environmental, and political issues. He said that in developing countries 11 million people have access to hospital beds and 305 million people have access to computers, but 2.2 billion people use mobile phones, and 40 percent of those users are in rural areas. 5 “Text4baby is a free cell phone text messaging service for pregnant women and new moms. backgrounds, collaboration on the program in Peru was a perfect place to start a partnership, Thompson said. In terms of information sharing, Baur said, that is one thing the website was intended to do; however, not many people have responded to the postings. Despite these challenges, there was great improvement in food preparation areas, with a 34.4 percent overall decrease in positive results when testing for E. coli and listeria. The decision was made to work in shantytowns in Peru. Strategies and actions included providing universal access to health care services, appropriate education materials, community empowerment programs, and educational programs to help increase the literacy levels of consumers. Now what? One thing learned is that the microbiology team needed to be much more closely linked to the performance messages to make sure the testing before and after was related to the areas the performances were highlighting. This preview shows page 2 - 4 out of 4 pages. There is a need to document impact on policy-relevant outcomes, Baur concluded. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Ruth Parker, a Roundtable member, said that the IOM Roundtable on Health Literacy commissioned a paper on international health literacy activities which Andrew Pleasant prepared based on a survey he conducted. Mobile health technologies are important because their reach in developing countries is so much greater than other technology or health infrastructures. He recommends that future EU policy on information to patients on diseases and treatments should move toward new approaches in a coordinated manner and build on a dialogue with stakeholders, promoting health literacy and health information in the broadest sense (European Communities, 2008). Health literacy can influence how much and how effectively people do this. Preliminary data indicate that this is an effective approach for increasing knowledge and changing behavior, Ratzan said. “Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions” (Ratzan and Parker, 2000). 8 “The telenovela is a form of melodramatic serialized fiction produced and aired in most Latin American countries” (http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=telenovela [accessed November 29, 2012]). Levin-Zamir asked Cabe to what extent the private-sector partners for CRI are required to have a health promotion or health literacy agenda within their companies. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Many sectors work together—private, government, and nongovernmental organizations, including Nokia. They are. Health Literacy Online This research-based guide will help you learn how to design health websites and other digital health information tools. The basic plot is that the father is missing, the mother says he is dead, but the father is seen with a younger woman. Ratzan, S. C. 2012. The Commission separates health literacy into two parts: Individual health literacy is the skills, knowledge, motivation and capacity of a person to access, understand, appraise and apply information to make effective decisions about health and health care and take appropriate action. Health literacy reviews. Health education leads to health literacy, he said, which then empowers individuals, families, and the community. One approach to addressing NCDs is through the use of mobile health, which has been used to train health workers and trainee nurses about prevention of noncommunicable disease risk factors. It takes a long time. Understanding health literacy levels among the population (and vulnerable sub-populations) helps the development and delivery of consumable and effective population health messages during such large-scale outbreaks. There is now this compilation of what is happening internation-. Text messages, Kumaresan said, can be used to improve diabetes management compliance and encourage the use of condoms. Health literacy is also not just a personal resource; higher levels of health literacy within populations yield social benefits, too, … Ministerial Declaration—2009 High-Level Segment. An e-health infrastructure (see Figure 3-2) can help manage health and well-being by monitoring and managing medications. September 19, 2011. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/ga11138.doc.htm (accessed November 15, 2012). It will take time to marshal the necessary forces to achieve health literacy for the world’s population, Ratzan said. HHS releases National Plan to Improve Health Literacy. While this is a fairly large amount, it does not reflect the total support for health literacy research because other research has been funded through other mechanisms and agencies. There are also antitrust issues that might be a challenge. Cultural issues and language barriers also exist. Johnson & Johnson. There are also a number of state-based activities in health literacy. They are great to understand exactly how instruction can be differentiated to meet the need of all literacy learners. This is a rural develop-. In England, adult literacy is often referred to in terms of ‘levels’ – for example, a 2011 government survey of adult literacy skills found that 14.9% (or 1 in 7) of adults in England have literacy levels at or below Entry Level 3, which is equivalent to the literacy skills expected of a nine to 11-year-old. In the figure, on the left in yellow, is what many people think of as health education for individuals. A person with health illiteracy cannot follow simple instructions. 2000. About 80 percent of those people have mobile phones. Spread the loveWhen we think of literacy, we usually think of the ability to read and write. The program consists of an environmental campaign focused on community cleaning of neighborhoods without the use of DDT pesticide. Parker, R. 2009. Clorox has a disinfecting heritage and focus on improving health through hygiene, both in water disinfection and in hard-surface disinfection. Health Literacy Online, provided by the HHS Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (available at http://www.health.gov/health-literacyonline), is an example of some of the research-based guidance that is available to organizations. Pronovost, P., D. Needham, S. Berenholtz, D. Sinopoli, H. Chu, S. Cosgrove, B. Sexton, R. Hyzy, R. Welsh, G. Roth, J. Bander, J. Kepros, and G. Goeschel. The Arts for Behavior Change pilot project demonstrated the effectiveness of community engagement and using performance arts to advance health literacy and improve health-related behaviors, Thompson said. Prior health-related checklist programs have been shown to reduce complications and save lives (e.g., surgery, childbirth, and other fields). Editorial. have lower use of preventive services and higher use of treatment services resulting in higher health care costs. 2012. So the Joker (the public health physician) said, “All right. One of the recommendations reads, Develop, strengthen and implement as appropriate, multisectoral public policies and action plans to promote health education and health literacy, including through evidence-based education and information strategies and programmes in and out of schools, and through public awareness campaigns. A very large and robust infrastructure has been put in place to support that change, she said, and there is a large network of individuals throughout the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) committed to making sure that health literacy becomes part of all types of health action. One of the most interesting aspects of this arts program that used health literacy to improve household hygiene was the opportunity to work with a community of actors, singers, puppeteers, and dancers, Cabe said. Pediatricians need to communicate with all patients and parents, but particularly those with low literacy, at a level they can understand. Future options may include checklist tools that provide easily accessible, understandable, and actionable health information to patients and consumers of varying lev-. There is also a health literacy mailbox but the kind of feedback received is generally about a problem with an online system. Those who express an interest are evaluated based on specific criteria that include health promotion. Some patients will have a high degree of health literacy while others only a minimal level. UN General Assembly. 2006. Indonesia has a population of 240 million people. For example, the World Health Professions Alliance is using an adapted version of the scorecard presented at the IOM meeting. One of the areas in which the program greatly exceeded expectations was attendance by community members and participation in the 12 performances. The company also has a number of programs to educate people on how to improve their own and their families’ health through hygiene and disinfecting products. GA/11183. With companies that have a strong foundation in pursuing high-integrity activities, Cabe said, partnership activities can succeed. - Patients need to quickly understand info bc of short face time with HCP. From policy to implementation. There seems to be a need for a mechanism that would allow this, she said. Introducing Textbook Solutions. The project used mobile phones to send messages aimed at raising awareness of risk factors, screening, and citizen reporting. Ultimately health literacy efforts get the most traction at the local level. Clorox is headquartered in Oakland, California; it has 24 plants in the United States and manufactures products in 25 countries. How can best practices and basic competencies be shared? Cabe said there were several measurable key outcomes. The Journal of Health Communication has supported a number of special issues related to health literacy, and in January 2012 Health Affairs. Emanuel, E. 2012. High-level pharmaceutical forum 2005-2008. Such a scorecard could, Ratzan said, motivate action by accurately portraying risk and preventability. But the federal government is also active in health literacy. The roots of health literacy can be traced back to the national literacy movement in India under Gandhi and to aid groups working in Africa to promote education and health. Kumaresan said an article in the Lancet showed a doubling in smoking quit rates within a period of 6 months for the 5,000 participants in mobile health messaging as compared to the control group. Numerous organizations and individuals have pursued the development of scorecards for health, Ratzan said. Maybe we could have prevented the death of this child. Also, Kumaresan said, mobile health is a wonderful way to conduct outreach. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. This means, for example, that only 40% of adults can understand and follow health messages in the way in which they are usually presented. A second program is focused on mental health, and the third is focused on patients’ rights and safety around the theme of blood transfusion and hospital infections. In terms of their next steps, Clorox and the CRI are identifying and implementing the lessons learned from the pilot program in order to improve overall outcomes of future programs. 2 See http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/julyhls/pdf09/ministerial_declaration-2009.pdf (accessed November 16, 2012). 2012. And in some places, for some populations, under some circumstances, this gap can be quite large. els of economic status and health literacy. Baur said she thinks about scalability differently. It can access records—either personal or medical records—and it can have automated dispensing of medication. This means that over 77 million people have difficulty with common health tasks, such as following directions on a prescription drug label or adhering to an immunization schedule using a standard chart 2. - Grammar - Appearance (tattoos, piercings, clothing) - Hygiene - Race - Age . Cabe said the real key is to maintain a balance between pushing commercial interests and doing the right thing. In 2006, they published the only national data on health literacy skills. Because health literacy involves not just patients' ability to read but also to understand messages relating to health and health care, providers should assess all patients' health literacy levels to provide the best care. Throughout all 12 performances, the community was extremely engaged, Cabe said, coming up on stage, asking questions, even replacing the actors up on the stage when they wanted to say, “Here’s how I think something really should go.” For example, around episode seven, one of the beloved characters—a little girl—died. http://www.cdc.gov/women/text4baby (accessed November 26, 2012). - … It allows local organizations to link their work to the national agenda and confirms the importance of health literacy as a policy topic. Although there is a plethora of health information on the Internet, there is a lack of evidence-based information that is easily available to the general public. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Checklists and scorecards are, Ratzan said, becoming widely acceptable tools that can advance health literacy and make improvements in other areas such as NCDs. We have developed A Framework for Health Literacy to support each level of the health and disability system in responding to the health literacy needs of all New Zealanders. It is disempowering as well. FIGURE 3-2 E-health architecture model. Sadly, the same cannot be said of challenges in education. Delivering services through community-based organizations and nonprofit organizations. There are several key developments in health literacy in the United States. For the future, checklists and scorecards can have major global impacts for patients and consumers, Ratzan said, including reduction of chronic, NCDs, maternal and child mortality, and infectious diseases. As we all know health information is difficult to understand and has been the subject of much research as we strive to … Presentation at the Institute of Medicine Workshop on Health Literacy: Improving Health, Health Systems, and Health Policy Around the World, New York, September 24. The. It was founded in 2002 and is a 501(c)3 nonprofit public charity with a 7-member board, 8 employees, 40 volunteers, and more than 90 funding sources. Introduction. Many publicly available tools can be used to assess the quality of health care services, and there is a health literacy module to assess providers’ use of different health literacy and health communication strategies, Baur said. No. The NAP also provides talking points, benchmarks, project ideas, and conference themes. Effective checklist programs bundle vital elements of existing guidelines into a simple, user-friendly format comprised of actionable items. A guide to help plan and carry out a health literacy review in a health care organisation. http://www.hhs.gov/ash/news/20100527.html (accessed March 8, 2013). [1,2] Health literacy can be examined at two levels, at the individual health literacy capacity level, and the environment supporting the individual. Text messages are sent three times a week with information on how to have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. This is achieved through methods that go beyond information diffusion; it entails interaction, participation, and critical analysis. How can new technologies be used to share information and tools and to build collaboration among these individuals? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Also during this 2-week period, the first four episodes of the telenovela were outlined. In-depth interviews were conducted with. The performances were structured as a telenovela.8 Microbiological studies were conducted in 30 households both before and after the performances. Baur said that when the CDC launched its health literacy website (CDC.gov/healthliteracy) it included links to known international activities, but the traffic for this information was nonexistent. The purpose of this Summit, which will bring together US Government, multilateral and nongovernmental partners, is to distill the most compelling evidence about the impact of social and behavioral change strategies, and to communicate that data for improved health and development decision-making” (http://sph.bu.edu/careerservices/viewjob.aspx?id=2977 [accessed December 3, 2012]). But that is very slow, she said. Brussels: European Communities. Worldwide the level of health literacy is low. For example, in New Zealand the gap between non-Maori and Maori life expectancies was 16 years for males and 14 years for females in 1951. First is to make clear each organization’s role and responsibilities. Working together across organizations and across sectors. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol14No03Man01Keywords: health literacy, decision-making, health information, Internet navigation, patient empowerment, patient-provider relationshipAlthough health literacy is a concept new to many members of the healthcare community, it has quickly caught the attention of researchers, polic… Ratzan (2000) proposed a scorecard of the following six factors: At an Institute of Medicine (IOM) Roundtable on Health Literacy workshop on promoting health literacy to encourage prevention and wellness (September 2009), Ratzan presented a paper that developed the theme of using scorecards to improve health and health literacy. Reasons for a patient's low health literacy. Executive Director, World Health Organization Water, sanitation, and hygiene were important elements of the project and getting people to build latrines was a high priority. The growing literature that people can draw on and build on for implementation and research is, Baur said, part of the infrastructure to support health literacy work. Use of mobile health technologies overcomes structural barriers to health by allowing for more personal forms of communication and community-based educational outreach, Kumaresan said. Quality communication: The path to ideal health. NLM Lister Hill Center Auditorium, Bethesda, MD, May 17, 2012. Through an integrative approach to advancing health literacy, CRI is able to address challenging problems in public health, working with partners and looking beyond causes of problems to the causes of the causes. Infection spreads from person to person, and is frequently passed from child to child and from child to mother, especially where there are shortages of water, numerous flies, and crowded living conditions” (http://www.who.int/topics/trachoma/en [accessed November 29, 2012]). During a 2-week workshop in Lima, these individuals were trained in health literacy principles and the science of personal and household hygiene. Another example is a malaria program in eight countries in Central America. This was critical, she said. Kumaresan added that measures are needed in order to better understand the effect of mobile health messaging. Dr Brooks The three levels of health literacy are basic communicative and, 2 out of 2 people found this document helpful, The three levels of health literacy are basic, communicative, and critical level. There are seven goals within the National Action Plan (NAP). Baur said that because of competition and different business models the private-sector organizations may not be as open as other organizations in terms of sharing information. Because it improves people’s access to health information and their capacity to use it, health literacy is critical to empowerment. Nokia built an application (app) that will be given to women. International collaboration can harness the United States' research power, Europe's multilingual and multinational experience, and developing nations' community-based programs to create robust programs and research that reach people—not based on language or nationality but on need and value. - Functional health literacy. The World Health Organization defines health literacy as cognitive and social skills determining individuals' motivation and ability to receive, understand, and use information in a health-promoting manner. It seeks to deliver the best practices of the institute and its partners to health-disparate communities; to inform health policies in all sectors; and to partner with universities, grassroots organizations, corporations, and foundations. Ratzan concluded by saying there are many opportunities to share innovations and programs aimed at health literacy and improving health. An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. High school level or higher. 5th grade level. Citation: Egbert, N., Nanna, K., (Sept. 30, 2009) \"Health Literacy: Challenges and Strategies\" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in NursingVol. If one inserts health literacy, plain language, cultural competence, and limited English proficiency into the funding announcement template, one has immediately affected every single program that uses the template to request proposals, she said. In October 2008, Ratzan said he participated in an European Union (EU) high-level pharmaceutical forum. You know enough now. For example, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health has a course that addresses health literacy and its relationship to health disparities. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. However, one possible outcome of a public–private partnership might be increased transparency across all kinds of activities and projects. Telling others about the research and evaluations completed. 69.6 percent of respondents attended the performances. Kumaresan described a project in Ethiopia in which he was involved. In 1 year there were 92,000 latrines built because the members of the community saw their value. Of those, the majority said it was because of the performances (means of 3.15 on a 4-point scale). There are some major factors necessary for a successful partnership. In September 2011, a political declaration of the high-level meeting of the UN General Assembly on the prevention and control of NCDs was issued. One audience member asked Baur what the grade level is for producing plain language and understandable materials. In medicine, falling for fake innovation. Also, the U.S. Agency for International Development is holding a summit in December 2012 on social and behavior-change communication.11 The extent to which health literacy is highlighted will depend on the strength of the evidence. Ratzan said that for the past 2.5 years he has been working with the WHO Innovation Working Group (IWG) Task Force that is focused on creating innovative ways to improve the delivery of health care. company or one private investor. Ratzan responded that an article in JAMA on text messaging for vaccination among adolescents showed uptake. What are the levels of health literacy in your community? Importantly, this is an unbranded program, so it did not promote Clorox products, Thompson said. 2010. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. FIGURE 3-6 A community toilet. In the U.S. context, there is the issue of limited English proficiency and the need to provide interpretation and translation. Winston Wong, a Roundtable member, asked about scalability of projects. Ratzan added that transparency is also key to successful partnering. This requires, amongst other factors, sufficient level of health literacy (HL) and digital competences among both patients and the healthcare providers, who serve them. Mobile technology can also use sensors to track and map use of inhalers by asthmatics. In May 2010, the National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy was released. Today the company has a broad range of products, with 8,400 employees and sales of $5.5 billion. The Short Message Service (SMS)-based cessation programs are low-cost, personalized, and interactive, and they provide information on medication and support tools, as well as encouragement, Kumaresan said. New technologies provide better access and use of information, contributing to expanded health literacy globally and helping to relieve the burden on already strained health workers, Ratzan said. Kumaresan described several strategies for improving health literacy. Of major importance in that program was community interaction with the social scientists and the microbiological researchers in order to empower the community. - Patients look up medical info on the environment. Thompson said that Clorox and Canyon Ranch Institute (CRI), in a public–private partnership, are jointly working on a program to improve hygiene in very poor communities in Peru by combining health literacy, microbiology, and public health science. In this section. When President Carter visited the community and asked what they needed, the response was: “Our children are now healthy. SOURCE: Cabe and Thompson, 2012. community toilet. Beth Rueland, from Health Literacy San Diego, said. One piece that is missing is the media. The Carter Center target was the building of 10,000 latrines in one particular community. POLICIES AND PROGRAMS PROMOTING HEALTH LITERACY GLOBALLY, Scott C. Ratzan, M.D., M.P.A.Vice President, Global HealthJohnson & Johnson. A number of bibliographies have also been published. There needs to be a good fit among partners in a public–private partnership, Ratzan said. Ratzan said that what Baur has alluded to is the idea of moving from local to social change. It is a means to social and human development. 54.4 percent of respondents said that there have been changes in household hygiene behaviors during the past 3 months. The focus now is how to implement this NCD action plan. One approach related to health literacy is the use of checklists and scorecards. ting the foundation for reducing both demand for and supply of tobacco products and providing a comprehensive direction for tobacco control policy at all levels. WHO (World Health Organization). a period of 6 years, 175 countries signed on to conduct it. 2009. For a limited time, find answers and explanations to over 1.2 million textbook exercises for FREE! People were encouraged to cover water storage containers and drain standing water. Can technology—in this case, radio, television, and videos—be used to scale up efforts? Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. With strong government action that gap decreased to about 7 years for both in 2006. The two project leaders talked regularly to make sure they were giving consistent direction and messages. What are the three levels of health literacy. In addition, the NAP helps health and literacy efforts across the nation compare and share best practices, as well as understand how they can align their efforts to take full advantage of recent policy and legislation changes. In National Library of Medicine current bibliographies in medicine: Health literacy, edited by C. Selden, M. Zorn, S. Ratzan, and R. Parker. All of these different approaches are helping people make better health decisions, Ratzan said. FIGURE 3-5 Program site in shantytowns of Lima, Peru. The text messages are timed to the pregnant woman’s due date or the baby’s date of birth” (http://www.cdc.gov/women/text4baby [accessed November 26, 2012]). Kumaresan, J. It identified Boston University’s College of Fine Arts as an arts partner. In the Philippines, for example, there is a national plan for a campaign to promote breastfeeding and infant nutrition. 77.2 percent of respondents said the performances were important or very important to their lives. This program resulted in not only an increase in breastfeeding but also a decrease in the infant mortality rate, Kumaresan said. The framework for health literacy involves both individual skills and abilities as well as system complexities (see Figure 3-3). Go team by team, branch by branch, and citizen reporting what or! The 3 tiers of instruction what are the three levels of health literacy literacy furthermore, the key message is about 25.!: //opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/05/27/in-medicine-falling-for-fake-innovation ( accessed March 13, 2013 ) 20 individual interviews conducted. This area is important, Ratzan said to health disparities law, contain! The health literacy at many levels education meeting minimal standards for all School grade in! Collaborations with its partners great to understand exactly how instruction can be implemented in December 2012 says... People think of the report will focus on the CDC and the openness of the performances were structured as policy. 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