Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Luke Gelinas, Sarah A White, and Barbara E Bierer, First Published Online: February 17, 2020. An important conclusion of this research is the fact that owing to their smallness and relative isolation, a number of Fair benefits for research in developing countries, Participants in the 2001 conference on ethical aspects of research in developing countries. To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access. What makes research in developing countries ethical? The Pardee RAND Graduate School (PRGS.edu) is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. The European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) commissioned this study as part of a follow up on the 2015 Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure, to better understand the economics of vulnerability disclosure by providing a glimpse into the costs, incentives and impact related to discovering and disclosing vulnerabilities. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. However, this sector is highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation and increased climate change impacts. United States Office for Human Research Protections . In recent years, there have been numerous high-profile vulnerabilities disclosed or exploited that have incurred significant economic and societal costs. Clinical Trials 2020 17: 3, 264-272 Download Citation. As the potential risk is so severe, vendors that develop or manufacture products or services for the Internet or the global ICT ecosystem may soon require the ability to receive good-faith vulnerability reports from the community. He has also developed expertise in methodologies including…, Nicole van der Meulen, Salil Gunashekar, Stefan Soesanto, Eun A Jo. Oxford Economics is a leader in global forecasting and quantitative analysis, with the world’s only fully integrated economic model and 250 full-time economists, we help our clients track, analyse, and model country, industry, and urban trends. Economic vulnerability and payment for research participation. Specifically, economic vulnerability is the likelihood of a system being affected negatively by shocks or perturbation (Naudé et al., 2009). Vulnerability can mainly be broken down into 2 major categories, economic vulnerability, based on socioeconomic factors, and geographic vulnerability. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Was Unemployment Insurance Designed to Exclude Black Workers? Socio-economic vulnerability and epidemic risk by age. In recent decades, countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have been developing rapidly in terms of economic development and incomes. Fernandez Lynch, H, Joffe, S, Thirumurthy, H. Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences . Executive Summary. The researchers drew on … Research published by the Smith School reveals that climate-friendly policies can deliver a better result for the economy - and the environment. It recalls the conceptual and empirical grounds of the index, considers the … For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is defined as the policy-induced ability of an economy to withstand or recover from the effects of such shocks. last-mile-evacuation.de. Economic vulnerability and payment for research participation. Four Gifts for Your Mental Health This (Pandemic) Holiday Season, The Compensation System for Potential Side Effects Is an Important Part of a COVID-19 Vaccine Campaign, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK, >The economics of vulnerability disclosure, Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure, Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure: From Challenges to Recommendations, Choice Modelling and Behavioural Research. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. Student, Pardee RAND Graduate School. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. The review of the available literature included academic research, technical reports, company publications, media articles and blogs, while a total of 13 interviews were carried out with experts from the vulnerability disclosure community. “Economic vulnerability,” the new OECD research shows, varies widely within the developed world. This study serves as a follow up to the 2015 ENISA Good Practice Guide on Vulnerability Disclosure and seeks to provide a glimpse into the economics, costs, and incentives related to discovering and disclosing vulnerabilities. In this context, the study of s ocio-economic vulnerability focu ses - among other things - on the time-specific activity and mobility patterns (dynamic exposure) of the local population, as well as on their susceptibility, risk awareness, potential behaviours in emergency. Between 2017 and the beginning of 2020, the different models had followed a common, slowly increasing trend of higher vulnerability. Economic vulnerability was initially developed in the 1990s by Briguglio (1993), Briguglio (1995), Briguglio (1997) and refers to the ‘risk’ to economic resilience (Gnangnon Sena, 2016). Assessing Socio-Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts and Environmental Hazards in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia ERIN F. SMITH*, NONI KEYS, SCOTT N. LIESKE and TIMOTHY F. SMITH Sustainability Research Centre, ML28, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Qld 4558, Australia. An Economic Vulnerability Index: Its Design and Use for International Devel-opment Policy. A featured contributor with The Dispatch, Dr. Farah Naqvi is an academician, writer, corporate trainer and HRD consultant associated with many MNCs and institutions in the field of academics, behavioral training, consulting and research. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. The population of poor countries has a state that does not guarantee them minimum conditions of survival and sustenance, and in the pursuit of personal and social growth there is no concern with sustainable development. RAND Europe, a research unit of the RAND Corporation, Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, Allies Growing Closer: Japan-Europe Security Ties in the Age of Strategic Competition, Autonomous Vehicles and the Future of Auto Insurance, Teleworking During the COVID-19 Pandemic Highlights Educational Inequity, Medical Mistrust Could Reduce Vaccine Uptake: Q&A with Laura Bogart. This site uses cookies. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. The measurement of economic resilience is carried out through the development of an index gauging the adequacy of policy in four broad areas, namely macroeconomic stability, microeconomic market … If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. The paper briefly reviews the work already carried out on economic vulnerability and extends the research … The study was carried out through a mixed-methods approach comprising desk research, literature review and key informant interviews. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Economic decisions taken in the vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular incentives perceived by each actor at different stages of the process. The various actors within a vulnerability disclosure process are subject to a range of economic considerations and incentives that may influence their behaviour. Neither are mutually exclusive. This is important, as individuals of lower socio-economic standing are present in all disease groups and study populations. Climate change represents a classic multi-scale global change problem in that it is characterized by infinitely diverse actors, multiple stressors and multiple time scales. economic vulnerability and extends research work carried so far towards developing a conceptual and methodological framework for the definition and measurement of economic resilience. Email: [email protected] This is an … There are four main actor groups within the vulnerability disclosure process: Users, Vendors, Finders and Coordinators. Click the button below for the full-text content, 24 hours online access to download content. He has worked across a range of topics including transport, defence and security, education, health and wellbeing. research, literature review, case studies and expert interviews. She has to her credit many research articles published in international refereed journals. Their research forecasts which countries are most susceptible to long-term economic scarring, and which could be first to bounce back. economic vulnerability that examines the proneness of countries to shocks in their performance. There has been significant analysis of the ethical and regulatory issues involved with paying research participants, but less attention has been focused specifically on paying economically vulnerable individuals and the unique challenges it may present. Economic vulnerability. He works at the intersection of technology, policy and the future and his primary research interests are complex, strategic policy challenges in relation to…, Will Phillips (he/him) is an analyst at RAND Europe working in the area of home affairs and social policy research. These economic aspects are often overlooked and poorly understood, however they may help explain why some vulnerabilities are disclosed responsibly while others are not. Abstract. The four models, introduced in a Liberty Street Economics post in 2018 and updated in a post last year, monitor vulnerabilities of U.S. banking firms and the way in which these vulnerabilities interact to amplify negative shocks. Here, a step was taken to ensure the relevance of the data within the domain of social and economic vulnerability research. Is it ethical to offer payment in such contexts? Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. Share of agriculture, forestry and fishing in GDPRemoteness and landlockednessShare of population living in drylandsInstability of agricultural productionVictims of disastersInstability of exports of In response to the need expressed by the UN General Assembly, an economic vulnerability index (EVI) has been defined by the Committee for Development Policy. Revisiting Economic Vulnerability in Old Age: Low Income and Subjective Experiences Among Swiss Pensioners Life Course Research and Social Policies 11 , Band 11: Amazon.de: Henke, Julia: Fremdsprachige Bücher Economic Vulnerability. The study also reaffirmed that the economics of vulnerability disclosure is an emerging area of research, with a clear need for additional empirical data and relevant research in a number of areas, including: Erik Silfversten, William D. Phillips, Giacomo Persi Paoli, Cosmin Ciobanu. … It is necessary to have processes in place to adequately identify, report and mitigate vulnerabilities. For love and money: the need to rethink benefits in HIV cure studies, Barriers to recruiting underrepresented populations to cancer clinical trials: a systematic review, Human rights and maternal-fetal HIV transmission prevention trials in Africa, Participants in the 2001 conference on ethical aspects of research in developing countries. Oxford Development Studies: Vol. Economic Vulnerability and Resilience: Concepts and Measurements. There are four main actor groups within the vulnerability … Exploitation and developing countries: the ethics of clinical research. What are the ethical considerations relevant for determining payment rates and practices to individuals who are economically vulnerable? Economic and Environmental Vulnerability Application and Indicator Selection Countries are eligible to enter or leave the LDC category if they meet the defined inclusion or … The agriculture sector is fundamental to this development from the economic and social perspectives. Luke Gelinas, Sarah A White, and Barbara E Bierer. Luke Gelinas, Sarah A White, and Barbara E Bierer. 4 Economic vulnerabilities to global health pandemIcs_____6 4.1 Direct impacts _____6 4.2 Economic exposure _____7 4.3 Economic resilience _____7 4.4 Overall vulnerability _____8 5 Which countries are most vulnerable to the impact of coronavirus? The economic vulnerability category includes persons who are disadvantaged in the distribution of social goods and services such as income, housing, or healthcare. Vulnerability research in climate change has, in some ways, a unique distinction of being a widely accepted and used term and an integral part of its scientific agenda. World gross national income per capita. The EIB COVID-19 Economic Vulnerability Index examines three main factors that influence the resilience of economies to the COVID-19 shock. Approaches to payment for research participation, An analysis of U.S. practices of paying research participants, Why do we pay? *Corresponding author. Quality of healthcare and age of the population. While some of these disclosures have been done so responsibly, other vulnerabilities have come to light only after substantial cyber attacks. Payment to economically vulnerable participants: distinctive issues, Potential directions for future empirical research, A framework for ethical payment to research participants, What’s the price of a research subject? In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is … Vulnerabilities in widely used software and hardware can cause immense societal harm across the globe. Harvard catalyst regulatory foundations ethics law program . Economic vulnerability. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. There emerged a strand of literature proposing alternative measurements, and sometimes definitions, of economic vulnerability. How payment for research participation can be coercive, Association between financial incentives and participant deception about study eligibility, International ethical guidelines for health-related research involving humans, Guideline 13, Money, coercion, and undue inducement: a survey of attitudes about payments to research participants, Philosophical reflections on experimenting with human subjects, Motivations, enrollment decisions, and socio-demographic characteristics of healthy volunteers in phase 1 research, More than the money: a review of the literature examining healthy volunteer motivations, Ethics in human subjects research: do incentives matter, Paying research participants: Ethical guidance for IRBs and Investigators, The influence of risk and monetary payment on the research participation decision making process, Informative inducement: study payment as a signal of risk, Community trust reduces myopic decisions of low-income individuals, Empirical assessment of whether moderate payments are undue or unjust inducements for participation in clinical trials, Fair subject selection in clinical research: formal equality of opportunity, Declaration of Helsinki—Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. Economic vulnerability and payment for research participation, https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/read-the-belmont-report/index.html, https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/guidance/faq/informed-consent/index.html, https://cioms.ch/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/WEB-CIOMS-EthicalGuidelines.pdf, https://catalyst.harvard.edu/pdf/regulatory/PaymentGuidance.pdf, https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-declaration-of-helsinki-ethical-principles-for-medical-research-involving-human-subjects/, Making the case for completion bonuses in clinical trials, The ethics and regulatory landscape of including vulnerable populations in pragmatic clinical trials, Use of altered informed consent in pragmatic clinical research. Definition of Economic Vulnerability: Economic vulnerability refers to risks caused by external/exogenous shocks to system of production, distribution and consumption. Older societies and poorly functioning healthcare systems often make countries vulnerable to the health impacts of the pandemic. An analysis of possible COVID-19 economic recovery packages shows the potential for strong alignment between the economy and the environment. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. We offer an analysis of these issues, focusing on four unique areas of concern: (1) whether the risk of undue influence is greater for economically vulnerable individuals than for wealthier ones; (2) whether payment unacceptably raises the risk of ‘unjust influence’ or disproportionate representation of poor people in clinical research; (3) the positive reasons in favor of paying economically vulnerable people that stem from the ethical value of fairness; and (4) appropriate compensation rates for economically vulnerable populations. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Our analysis supports the position that payment to economically vulnerable populations is ethically justified and indeed desirable when certain conditions are met. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. In this paper, economic vulnerability is defined as the exposure of an economy to exogenous shocks, arising out of economic openness, while economic resilience is defined as the policy-induced ability of an economy to withstand or recover from the effects of such shocks. Format: Tips … Lean Library can solve it. Halpern, SD, Karlawish, JHT, Casarett, D. Hawkins, J, Emanuel, EJ (eds). The present paper, which refers to this index, first examines how a structural economic vulnerability index can be designed for the low-income countries in particular. Sharing links are not available for this article. Vulnerabilities are 'flaws' or 'mistakes' in computer-based systems that may be exploited to compromise the network and information security of affected systems. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Economic decisions taken in the vulnerability disclosure process largely depend on the particular incentives perceived by each actor at different stages of the process. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. There are also several possible vulnerability disclosure options that actors can engage in, including full, limited, or non-disclosure, which further influence the types of economic considerations and incentives that are present. Vulnerability disclosure refers to the process of identifying, reporting and patching weaknesses of software, hardware, or services that can be exploited. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. × To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research, Receive a 20% Discount on ALL Publications and Free Worldwide Shipping on Orders Over US$ 295 Additionally, Enjoy … An Economic Vulnerability Index: Its Design and Use for International Development Policy Patrick Guillaumont To cite this version: Patrick Guillaumont. Erik Silfversten is a research leader at RAND Europe and co-director of the RAND Europe Centre for Futures and Foresight Studies (CFFS). Abstract: The purpose of this article is to address economic vulnerability in sustainable development. National governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure policy and begin a discussion of how to best approach a government disclosure decisions process. Social vulnerability research has become a deeply interdisciplinary science, rooted in the modern realization that humans are the causal agents of disasters – i.e., disasters are never natural, but a consequence of human behavior. Just about 40 percent of Americans, by contrast, live at that razor’s edge. Only a little over 10 percent of people in Japan, for instance, rate as economically vulnerable. This report describes characteristics of LGBT adults in California, a population of nearly 1.7 million, in relation to their vulnerability to economic harm from the COVID-19 pandemic. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical Behavioral Research . Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. View or download all the content the society has access to. Vulnerability disclosure takes place in a wider computing and information security ecosystem whose unique economic structures and incentives have direct economic effects on vulnerability disclosure. A national survey of investigators and IRB chairpersons, Commonly performed procedures in clinical research: a benchmark for payment, Paying research subjects: an analysis of current policies, Money, coercion, and undue inducement: attitudes about payments to research participants, Misconceptions about coercion and undue influence: reflections on the views of IRB members, Paying research participants: regulatory uncertainty, conceptual confusion, and a path forward, On paying money to research subjects: “due” and “undue” inducements, Paying research participants: the outsized influence of “undue influence.”, Vulnerability in research: individuals with limited financial and/or social resources, The recruitment of normal healthy volunteers: a review of the literature on the use of financial incentives, Perceptions of financial payment for research participation among African-American drug users in HIV studies, Attrition and retention of ethnically diverse subjects in a multicenter randomized controlled research trial, Payment for research participation: a coercive offer. While theoretically, either continuous or categorical variables may be used for constructing measures of economic vulnerability, the interpretation will be easier if the variable is categorical. Implications for the exit strategy from COVID-19. Economic vulnerability is captured under the socio-economic category, which is computed as the arithmetic mean of indicators measuring development and deprivation, inequality, and aid dependency. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. By continuing to browse Moral standards for research in developing countries: from “reasonable availability” to “fair benefits.”, Research at the auction block: problems for the fair benefits approach to international research. Moreover, clinical research is often conducted in economically under-developed locales, such as lower- or middle-income countries as well as impoverished locales of otherwise wealthy nations (such as, for example, rural Appalachia in the United States). National governments should adopt a coordinated vulnerability disclosure (CVD) policy and begin a discussion of how to best approach a government disclosure decisions process. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Economic incentives play a key role in vulnerability disclosure across all actors and processes, regardless of what type of vulnerability disclosure process is ultimately pursued. First to bounce back begin a discussion of how to best approach a government disclosure decisions.... ( CFFS ) the email address and/or economic vulnerability research entered does not match our records, please use one the... 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Continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies a better for... Have read and accept the terms and conditions, view permissions information for article... Through a mixed-methods approach comprising desk research, literature review exceeding 400 articles was conducted to ensure the relevance all. Conducted to ensure the relevance of all data that was collected and compiled into databases Sharing. Social perspectives read the fulltext, please use one of the RAND Europe economic vulnerability research... A range of topics including transport, defence and security, education, health and wellbeing find about. Of identifying, reporting and patching weaknesses of software, hardware, or services can. Vulnerability and extends the research … economic vulnerability that examines the proneness of countries to shocks in performance! Desk research, literature review and key informant interviews to risks caused by external/exogenous shocks system.