Mostly, Jahangir maintained the spirit of religious toleration towards all his subjects and no change was brought about by him in the policy of Akbar. Yet, his aim was not religious but political. Thus at the end of 1601, certain territories were handed over and the terms of the treaty more or less comprised the earlier offer. UPSC History The Mughal Empire Question Bank ... which Mughal emperor introduced the policy of Sulah-i-Kul? among other things—his having attempted to bring Hindus and Muslims together with some success. At the time, the rise of Malik Ambar, a noble in the Ahmadnagar court occurred who tried to recover Berar and Balaghat. He started the practice of Jharokha Darshan and Tula-Dan and celebrated all festivals of the Hindus and the Muslims alike at the court. Therefore, his period of rule cannot be regarded as the period of religious intolerance though this is quite clear that, certainly, his policy had inclined towards bigotry as compared to the policy of his father and grandfather. It resulted in a serious revolt in Bengal and Bihar in 1581-82 A.D. and Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s step-brother invaded India in expectation of getting success. were patronized at his court. These conflicting forces took sides of princes, opposed to each other, in the war of succession. In the realm of art the Persian and Indian styles of architecture mingled happily and its excellence was exhibited in the magnificent buildings of Akbar and Shahjahan. Lal observes- “Since now the Emperor was supreme in religious matters also, he must give spiritual guidance to his people.”. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download also contains related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) which will be beneficial for all Competitive Exams like WBCS (Preli & Mains), UPSC, SSC, Rail (Gr. He had faith in God and observed principles of Islam in a normal way. There is another controversy among historians regarding Akbar. It was the logical result of the declaration of Khutba in 1579 A.D. Dr K.S. His father was Sunni while his mother and his protector, Bairam Khan were Shias. Sher Shah was an Afghan ruler. Religious Policy of the Mughals. Kabul and Qandhar were the twin gateways of India’s trade with Central Asia. (iv) They had to abstain from eating meat as far as possible. However, there are certain instances which prove that, at times, Jahangir favoured Islam. Babur and Humayun had no time to pursue a clear-cut religious policy. Therefore, there is no justification in accepting the charges of Badayuni against Akbar. He was impressed by their loyalty and chivalry. He established a separate department for this purpose. Judicial Departments and he administered public charities. 7. Aurangzeb ascended the throne at the matured age of nearly forty years. The marriage of the Adil Shahi princess with Daniyal, the Mughal viceroy in the Deccan took place in 1604. The Maratha-war of independence broke the backbone of the power of Aurangzeb and he died when his failure had become quite visible to him. In 1688 A.D., restrictions were imposed on celebrating Hindu fairs and festivals and the Hindus except the Rajputs were disallowed to use good horses, palanquins, elephants and arms. Humayun was also a Sunni Muslim and followed the principles of his faith in his personal life. . So Manifest aims to convert this aspiration into reality and give sufficient content for this … A) Akbar done clear. The Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur, the Maratha king Shambuji and his minister Kavi Kalesh were promised immunity from punishment on condition of embracing Islam. The Mughal ruling class or the nobility as it is commonly designated, comprised both civil bureaucrats as well as military commanders. (vii) They were expected to sacrifice property, life, honour and religion in the service of the emperor. He failed to do any good to the majority of his subjects. Muslims kept beards during his rule and added Ahmad or Mohammad to their names. He declared wars against Rana Sanga and Medini Rai as Jihads (holy wars), assumed the title of Ghazi (slayer of infidels), abolished stamp-tax on the Muslims and built a mosque in Ayodhya. Thus, Akbar provided equal protection to all religions and the state made no distinction between its subjects in any field on ground of religion. The Mughal court became the scene of factions among the nobles. Babur and Humayun had no time to pursue a clear-cut religious policy. Temples in Banaras, Allahabad, Gujarat and Kashmir were broken during his reign. He was very much tolerant towards the Shias. Now, who was a better emperor? His policy was based on the principle of Suleh-i-kul (universal peace). . Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, The Religious Policy of the Mughal Rulers in India, Deccan Policy of the Mughal Emperors | Indian History, Rajput Policy of the Mughal Emperors | Indian History, Mughal Emperors and Central Asia | Indian History, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. When we answer this question we have to remember that while the policy of Akbar strengthened the empire, the policy of Aurangzeb weakened it. It would be wrong to conclude that there were political and economic motives for these acts of Aurangzeb. After sometime in September, 1579 A.D., Akbar read Mahzar. Therefore, it would be wrong to conclude that by taking over the right of one of his own officers to himself, Akbar had desired to become Pope or the religious head. Therefore, the policy of religious intolerance can never bring about successful result in India. Rather, he utilised the entire machinery of the state to fulfill this aim. He charged that Akbar legalised muta-marriages; people were allowed to shave their beards in 1580 A.D.; those Mullas and Shaikhs who opposed Akbar were sent to Kandhar in 1581-82 A.D. and, in exchange, horses were procured; copies of the Koran were destroyed by Akbar, the study of Arabic was checked; the mosques were converted into stables for horses; pilgrimage for Haj was prohibited; Muslims were restrained from celebrating their religious festivals, etc. "Religion of God"), known during its time as Tawḥīd-i-IlāhÄ« ("Divine Monotheism", lit: "Oneness of God") or Divine Faith was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582, intending to merge some of the elements of the religions of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects. Those people whose yearly income was less than 200 Dirhams had to pay twelve Dirhams yearly to the state; those whose yearly income was between 200-10,000 Dirhams had to pay twenty-four Dirhams yearly; and those whose yearly income was more than 10,000 Dirhams had to pay forty-eight Dirhams yearly. . He perhaps hoped that by this means he would be able to defeat t… The Mughal reign was a crucial phase in Indian History. He had rebuked prince Aurangzeb because of his ill-treatment of the Rajputs. The view is logical. Yet, it cannot be denied that the primary cause of the orthodox religious policy of Aurangzeb was his own religious bigotry. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. He prohibited cultivation of Bhang, stopped drinking alcohol and gambling, tried to check the practice of Sati, ordered prostitutes either to leave his empire or get married and also stopped celebrating the festivals like Holi, Diwali, Basant, etc. Amid confused fighting the role of Khan-i-Khanan, who was the Mughal commander in the Deccan, was crucial. Akbar never disrespected either the Koran or Prophet Mohammed, nor he prohibited celebrations of Muslim festivals. The member of this order observed certain following rules: (i) They saluted each other with the words Allah-o-Akbar and Jall-e-Jalal- e-Hu. In fact, Din-i-Ilahi was not a religious order. According to Satish Chandra, it has been assumed that Akbar’s objective in the Deccan was to assert Mughal suzerainty over the entire area and if possible to conquer the states there, beginning with Ahmadnagar. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy. Some historians have tried to prove that the motivating factors of the policy of Aurangzeb were not religious but Aurangzeb desired to bring India under one rule and one administration. The defence of the north-western frontier was neglected and the material resources of the empire dwindled till they ceased to suffice for its need.”. Aurangzeb reacted to these threats by emphasizing Islam as the only bond of unity in the highly segmented ruling class. His place in history does not depend upon his initiating a policy of religious toleration or neutrality.”. Therefore, Din-i-Ilahi can be accepted only as a social order whose members desired to share their common views, meet with each other for this purpose and cooperate each other in their social life. 2. Kavindra Acharya Sarasvati, Sundar Das, Chintamani, etc. The religious policy of Akbar was that of complete toleration. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century. Aurangzeb persecuted the majority of his subjects, viz., the Hindus. It was Akbar (who promoted the syncretic religion called DÄ«n-i IlāhÄ«) during whose reign the religious policy of the Mughals were formulated. Yet, Guru Govind Singh continued fighting against the Mughuls. Rajput policy; Evolution of religious and social outlook, the theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy; Court patronage of art and technology; Also Read : UPSC Mains Exam Syllabus 2021: An In-depth Explanation of UPSC IAS Syllabus. Indeed, he set himself the vain task of becoming ‘Alamgir’ or ‘world grasper’ and was content to be ‘Zinda Pir’ or ‘living saint’ to his orthodox Muslim contemporaries. Probably, during the course of wars, vacant mosques were used as resting places by the soldiers but it did not mean that mosques were converted into stables for horses. But his policy was also tolerant. Source: The Hindu. The religious policy of Aurangzeb brought out serious consequences. Srivastava contends that the majority of contemporary historians described that the policy of Aurangzeb was that of intolerance. From the discussion above given, it is clear that the Mughals succeeded in maintaining a controlled frontier in the north-west, based on the Hindukush, on the one side, and the Kabul-Ghazni line, on the other. Like Feroz Shah before him, he combined administrative zeal with religious intolerance. “Aurangzeb could easily have become an ‘ornament of the throne,’ had he not spent his dynamic energy and genius in channels destructive to both himself and the empire that was his glorious heritage. He was a fanatic Sunni, Zinda (living) Pir for his Sunni subjects and observed the principles of Islam strictly. He was a liberal man and therefore, was tolerant towards every faith. 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